Pure lithium is very reactive in air. It is therefore produced and processed in the form of various lithium salts. Lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide dominate here, but also lithium chloride. Due to the different densities of these compounds, the term "lithium carbonate equivalent" (LCE) was introduced for better comparability. In the table, the corresponding conversion factors can be found.
Since 2019, the use of lithium hydroxide in the solid-state synthesis of cathode materials has been preferred, as it enables rapid and complete synthesis at lower temperatures. This improves the performance and lifetime of a lithium ion battery. For these applications, the highest purity of lithium salts of at least 99.5% (battery grade) is required.